Optimization on flag manifolds (Ke Ye)


A flag is a sequence of nested subspaces. Flags are ubiquitous in numerical analysis, arising in finite elements, multigrid, spectral, and pseudospectral methods for numerical pde; they arise in the form of Krylov subspaces in matrix computations, and as multiresolution analysis in wavelets constructions. They are common in statistics too—principal component, canonical correlation, and correspondence analyses may all be viewed as methods for extracting flags from a data set. The main goal of this article is to develop the tools needed for optimizing over a set of flags, which is a smooth manifold called the flag manifold, and it contains the Grassmannian as the simplest special case. We will derive closed-form analytic expressions for various differential geometric objects required for Riemannian optimization algorithms on the flag manifold; introducing various systems of extrinsic coordinates that allow us to parameterize points, metrics, tangent spaces, geodesics, distances, parallel transports, gradients, Hessians in terms of matrices and matrix operations; and thereby permitting us to formulate steepest descent, conjugate gradient, and Newton algorithms on the flag manifold using only standard numerical linear algebra.



-    Mathematical Programming, (2021)


-    Ke Ye (KLMM, AMSS, Chinese Academy of Sciences)

-    Ken Sze-Wai Wong (Department of Statistics, University of Chicago)

-    Lek-Heng Lim (Computational and Applied Mathematics Initiative, Department of Statistics, University of Chicago).